ODIP

The Online Dictionary of Intercultural Philosophy (Preview)

Dictionnaire en ligne de la philosophie interculturelle  跨文化哲学在线词典 Онлайн-словарь межкультурной философии  異文化の哲学のオンライン辞書  Wörterbuch der interkulturellen Philosophie القاموس على الانترنت الفلسفة بين الثقافات Diccionario en línea de filosofía intercultural  상호 문화 철학의 온라인 사전  Online szótár interculturális filozófia  فرهنگ لغت آنلاین فلسفه میان فرهنگی  Online sanakirja kulttuurienvälisen filosofian सांस्कृतिक दर्शन के ऑनलाइन शब्दकोश Dicționar online de filozofie intercultural Διαδικτυακό λεξικό της διαπολιτισμικής φιλοσοφίας.

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Editor-in-Chief:

Thorsten Botz-Bornstein

 

Editorial Board:

Yolanda Angulo Parra (Latin America), Yoko Arisaka (Japan)

Innocent Asouzu (Africana), Ayman Bakr (Middle East),

Bertold Bernreuter (Latin America), Hye Seung Chung (Korea),

Gerald Cipriani (Japan), Mikhail Epstein (Russia),

Sureyyya Evren (Turkey), Keith Hitchins (Eastern Europe),

Byron Kaldis (Greece), Heisook Kim (Korea),

Helen Lauer (Africana), Bo Mou (China),

Bassam Romaya (Middle East), Navjyoti Singh (India),

Jacynthe Tremblay (Japan), Mayuko Uehara (Japan),

Tere Vaden (Finno-Hungarian), Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover (Russian),

Huang Yong (China), Andrei Zavaliy (Russia),

Evert van der Zweerde (Russia)

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SAMPLE ENTRIES: 

  

Concepts    Philosophical Movements    Philosophers    Books 

 

A

Aadhaara (Indian), a-spatial location (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come

Aida [ajidə] (Japanese). Japanese philosopher Watsuji Tetsuro (1889–1960) interpreted human beings as determined not by the solipsistic structure of the modern cogito but by a “betweenness” that he called aidagara (by TBB). More

African Science. The theory of African Science has been undergoing systematization by the Calabar School of Philosophy (by J. Chimakonam). More

All-Unity, vseyedinstvo (Russian). Thoughts about All-Unity, often discussed in proximity with the quest for harmony of faith and reason, are not simply philosophical protests against the ecclesiastical “egoism” of Protestants who are said to affirm a “multitude without unity,” but most often represent direct attempts to overcome the entire intellectual machine of Western metaphysics by Eastern Orthodox means (by TBB). More

Aksara (Indian), "unwavering" (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come

Alitheia (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis) More to come

Arigatai (Japanese). (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come

Awai (Japanese). (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come

 

B

Backwardness (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn) More to come

Bakhtin, Mikhail [and Intercultural Philosophy]  (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come

Bakhtin, Mikhail: The Dialogic Imagination (1930) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come

Basho 場所 (Japanese). Central philosophical term developed by Nishida Kitarô (1870-1945). Literally, basho means “place.” Nishida’s basho is a kind of “negative space” in which things do not simply “exist” but in which they are “local”, i.e. in which they “are” in a concrete way (by TBB). More

Basho no ronri 場所の論理 (The Logic of Place) is a fundamental theme in the philosophy of Nishida Kitaro (by Augustin Berque). More

Being [Japanese] see yu, soku.

Bhaava (Indian), punctual form (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come

Blaga, Lucian, Romanian philosopher [1895-1961] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

Body [Japanese concept of] see shintai, shutai.

Borderlands (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska) More to come

Buber, Martin: I and Though (Ich und Du, 1923) (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

 

C

Calabar School of Philosophy (Nigeria). A philosophical movement aimed at promoting intercultural philosophical inquiry. See Ibuanyidanda.

Carnivalesque (Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More

Comparative Philosophy. Together with the more recent Intercultural Philosophy, Comparative Philosophy is the only philosophical branch eager to undertake a critical evaluation of World Philosophy on a comparative basis (by TBB). More 

Convergence see mestorazvitie.

Cosmism, космизм (Russian). A metaphysical and religious outlook, originated in the 19th century Russia, which presents a unique blend of futuristic speculations, materialistic science, religious mysticism and esoteric practices (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

Crainic, Nichifor, Romanian philosopher [1889-1972] (by Keith Hitchins). More

Critical Regionalism. The term was introduced in 1981 by the architects Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre in their article “The Grid and the Pathway” and in 1983 Kenneth Frampton authored an article on the same subject (by TBB). More 

Chronos (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

Cross-cultural A term initially used in the social sciences to refer to comparative studies of cultural differences and similarities. The usage of the term has broadened to mean any study or practice involving different cultural approaches. Strictly speaking, what is cross-cultural should designate what is at the crossroad of different cultures. Useful link: Cross-Cultural Research (by Gerald Cipriani).

Cultural What relates to culture in the sense of a particular manifestation of human achievement in the arts, languages, forms of expression (whether secular or religious), and customs of all kinds Useful link: UNESCO. (By Gerald Cipriani). See also intercultural; cross-cultural; multicultural; transcultural; subcultural; pre-culturalpost-cultural.

  

D

Dao (Chinese). Way or the way things are; ultimate reality or the ultimate.One primary, and non-mystical, understanding of dao in classical Chinese philosophy is that the dao is the way things are, no matter how a thinker or a school of thought understands the way things are and how he or she elaborates such an understanding (by Bo Mou). More

De (Chinese). Virtue; manifestations of the dao. Generally speaking, in the Chinese tradition, the term ‘de’ means human moral virtue (by Bo Mou). More

Dialogue A particular mode of relationship between human beings or between human beings and their place, which can be their natural environment, history, tradition, culture, the present world, or other communities (by Gerald Cipriani) More
Dialetical (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

Duric. Milos, Serbian philosopher [1892-1967] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

  

  
E

Eastern Europe [as a philosophical concept] (by Julia Sushytska) More to come

Eleftheria (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

Enylon (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine). (By Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

Ethnofuturism is an aesthetic movement initiated by the Finno-Ugric philosophers Uku Masing (Estonian) and the Komi national K. F. Zhakov (by Kari Sallamaa). More

Ethnophilosophy was developed in Africa in the 1960s though its origin can be traced back to a book by the Belgian missionary Placide Tempels on Bantu philosophy (by TBB). More.

Eurasianism emerged in 1921 and was based on the observations of a “dying West” and a “rising East” (by TBB) More

Euthanasia (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

Experience see jizen keiken.

 

F

Filosofia (Russian). The difference between philosophy and filosofia is roughly analogous to the difference between a scholarly symposium and a Platonic symposium: the participants in the latter not only correctly discuss ideas but “totally” give themselves over to them, with all their body, soul and mind. (by Mikhail Epstein) More.

Fudo 風土 (Japanese). In his book Fudo (1935), Japanese philosopher Watsuji Tetsuro provided an account of cultural uniqueness based on the concept of fudosei (climaticity). (by Augustin Berque) More.

 

H

Han (Korean), 恨 (Chinese).  Han is a slippery and subtle term that, depending on context, denotes everything from "resentment" and "lamentation" to "unfulfilled desire" and "resignation." (by Hye Seung CHUNG). More

He 和 (諧) (Chinese). Harmony/harmonious; peace; concord. He embodies both the ancient Chinese thinkers’ (descriptive) understanding of the fundamental structure of the universe (including the human society) and it delivers their (prescriptive) expectation for the ideal situation of the human society (harmonious brotherhood) (by Bo Mou). More

Hegel [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

Herausdrehen. Heideggerian term meaning 'to twist free of', 'to extricate oneself from', 'turning forth', 'turning-out-of'' in the context of the overcoming of metaphysics (by TBB). More

Heteroglossia (according to Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover). More

Hila. Craftiness, cunning (Arab) (by Franck Martin) More to come

History [according to Nishida Kitaro] see rekishi.

Historical Materialism (non-Marxian) (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn) More to come

Houtondji, Paulin (Beninese philosopher). More to come

Human Rights (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

Hutsul Mythology (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska ) More to come

 

I

Ibuanyidanda [Complementarity] (Igbo, African) is a philosophical movement in African founded at the University of Calabar, Nigeria. (by Innocent Asouzu) More

Iki 粋 (Japanese) is an aesthetic notion from the late Edo époque signifying “elegance,” “dapper,” or “chic” (by TBB). More

Imaginary Logic, voobrazhaemaja logika, Воображаемая логика (Russian). Term coined by N.A. Vasil'ev in 1911. More to come

Imyaslavie, имяславие (Russian). Literally: “glorification of the name” (alternatively: “worshipping the name"); also referred to as onomatodoxy. A philosophical/religious teaching of the beginning of 20th century - associated, among others, with Losev, Lossky, Bulgakov (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

Inakomislyashij, инакомыслящий (Russian) literally - the one who thinks differently, a non-conformist. Standard term for various dissidents in 20th century (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

Integrative Humanism (African) see Njikoka Philosophy.

Intelligentsia (Russian). The word “intelligentsia” itself, translated from the Latin, means “speculation [umozrenie]”, “the mind’s ability to generalize and systematize ideas” (by Mikhail Epstein). More.  

Intercultural (by Gerald Cipriani). What involves interactions between different cultures. Intercultural perception, understanding, or interpretation can also refer to culture-specific awareness in the light of other cultures.  Useful Link: Society of Intercultural Philosophy

Intercultural Philosophy see Comparative Philosophy.

Ionescu, Nae, Romanian philosopher [1888-1940] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

 

J

Jaspers, Karl [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

Jizen-keiken 自全経験 (Japanese) means “self-sufficient and independent experience." The term has been coined by Motora Yūjirō (by Takeshi Morisato). More
 

K

Kankyo 環境 (Japanese) "space" (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

Kant, Immanuel [on interculturality] (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

Khandra (Russian). Spleen, boredom, longing. Khandra is a specifically Russian ailment, a problem of ethnic patho-psychology (by Mikhail Epstein). More

Kire 切れ (Japanese) literally means “cut,” or “to cut off.” Kire is also strongly linked to the phenomena of iki and ma. (by TBB). More

Kolakowski, Leszek (Central Europe) (by Juliusz Iwanicki) More to come

Ksana (Indian), a-temporal duration (by Navjyoti Singh). More to come

 

L

Lvov-Warsaw School (Central European) (by Jan Wolenski) More to come

 

M

Ma 間 (Japanese), same Chinese character as aida (Japanese). Signifies “interval in time and space” suggesting the idea of a non-geometrical (felt-experienced as opposed to calculated- measured) space dependent on cultural symbolisms (by TBB) More 

Malebranche, Nicolas: Dialogue between a Christian Philosopher and a Chinese Philosopher on the Existence and Nature of God (Entretien d'un philosophe chrétien et d'un philosophe chinois sur l'existence et la nature de dieu, 1708) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come

Mamardashvili, Merab (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska) More to come

Marcel, Gabriel: Creative Fidelity (Du refus à  l'invocation, 1940) (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

Mestorazvitie, месторазвитие (Russian) “space-development.” The geographer Petr N. Savitzky (1895-1968) introduces the term as a theoreti­cal notion through which socio-historical components can be seen as integral parts of geographical conditions.The individual, not unlike the personality, is supposed to appear as a “geographical individual” (by TBB). More

Mir, мир (Russian) (by Andrei Zavaliy). More to come

Mu (Japanese) see Nothingness.

Muism, Mu-Gyo, 巫敎 (Korean) indicates Korean indigenous religion, often called Korean shamanism (by Heisook Kim). More

Multicultural (by Gerald Cipriani). A community that is multicultural is culturally diverse. Cultural multiplicity does not necessarily involve interactions or crossovers between the various cultures that constitute the community in question.

 

N

Narodnost’ (Russian) encompasses “spirit of the people,” “national character” and “folk wisdom” and is an important concept in Russian intellectual history. (Two entries by Mikhail Epstein and S. Vladiv-Glover). More

Nei-sheng-wai-wang 內聖外王 (Chinese). Inner sageliness and outer kingliness (by Bo Mou). More

Neprotivlenie, непротивление (Russian). In Russian cultural tradition this moral category is primarily associated with Leo Tolstoy’s (1828-1910) philosophical and religious writings at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries, and the subsequent movement of the Tolstoyans. (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

Nihilism, nigilism, нигилизм (Russian) is a very important concept in 19th century intellectual life, cf. Turgenev's Fathers and Sons (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

Nishida Kitaro (Japanese philosopher) [and Intercultural Philosophy]. More to come

Nishida Kitaro: I and Thou (私と汝 Watakushi to Nanji, 1932) (by TBB). More

Njikoka Philosophy (African). "Integrative humanism." Njikoka philosophy is an intercultural philosophical theory whose principal proponent is Godfrey O. Ozumba. It has been developed by members of the Calabar School of Philosophy (by Jonathan O. Chimakonam). More.

Nostalgia (Russian) (by Julia Sushytska) More to come

Nothingness mu (Japanese). More to come

Nothingness wu (Chinese). More to come

Nothingness [Nishida Kitaro] (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

Nothingness [Merab Mamardashvili] (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover) More to come

Nowak, Leszek (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn) More to come

 

O

Ochevidnost', очевидность (Russian) Literally: “obviousness”, “something observed with one’s own eyes”, “insight”. One of the central epistemological categories in the religious philosophy of Ivan Ilyin (1883-1954), a major 20th century Russian thinker (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

 

P

Pan-Asianism represented a movement of Asian cooperation asking for the liberation of all occupied parts of Asia (by TBB) More

Pan-Slavism represents a mixture of nationalist and supra-nationalist elements developed by non-Russian Slavs who felt the need for cooperation. It had no link whatsoever with Great Russian aspirations (by TBB) More

Pan-Africanism One catalyst for the rapid and widespread development of Pan-Africanism was the colonization of the continent by European powers in the late nineteenth century (by TBB, to be extended) More

Pantahikineton (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

Passionarnost’, пассионарность (Russian) A central concept in the historical, ethnological and anthropological studies of Lev N. Gumilev (1912-1992), a polymath Russian thinker and a major historian of the 20th century (by Andrei Zavaliy) More

Pathi (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

Physiki theologia (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

Polylog (Franz Martin Wimmer). More to come

Polyphony (Bakhtin) (by Slobodanka Vladiv-Glover) More

Popovic, Justin, Serbian philosopher [1894-1979] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

Post-cultural (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

Poznan School of Methodology (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn) More to come

Pre-cultural Beside the field of biology, the term can be used either to denote activities that took place chronologically before cultures became identifiable in the history of humanity, or else to denote any human activities that are not yet culturally recognizable (by Gerald Cipriani). More

Psyche (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

 

Q

Qi (ch’i) 氣. (Chinese) The term ‘qi’ in classical Chinese philosophy means a kind of vital-breath-like matter-energy that is the most fundamental ‘stuff’ of everything. Qi can be light (spirits) or dense (material things) (by Bo Mou).

 

R

Reformthinking (Indian). (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

Reformthinking (Turkish). (by Gerrit Steunebrink). More to come

Rekishi [for Nishida Kitaro] 歴史 (Japanese), history (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

Ren (jen) 仁 (Chinese). Humanity, human heartedness). The Confucian conception of ren was suggested by Confucius in the Lun-Yü and has occupied the central position in Confucian philosophy (by Bo Mou). More

Ricoeur, Paul: Oneself as Another (Soi-meme comme un autre, 1990) (by Gerald Cipriani). More to come

 

S

Samobytnost', самобытность (Russian). Literally: “self-being”; the term also connotes the ideas of self-sufficiency, independence, authenticity and singularity (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

Shadowplay see ying xi. 

Shintai 身体 (Japanese) body (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

Shin-myung 神明 (Korean) is pronounced as "shen ming" in Chinese and "shin myung" in Korean. Shin means spirit or god and myung means clear understanding (by Heisook Kim). More

Shugo 主語 (Japanese). (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come

Shukan 主観 (Japanese). (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come

Shutai 主体 (Japanese). (by Mayuko Uehara). More to come

Slavyanofilstvo, славянофильство, Slavophilism (Russian). Also referred to as slavofilia (from Greek “love of Slavs”) (by Andrei Zavaliy and TBB). More

Sobornost’ (Russian). The untranslatable term can be rendered into English as “conciliarity” supposed to balance the relationship between authority and freedom (by TBB). More

Soku 即 (Japanese), is/is not (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

Solidarity (Central European) (by Krzysztof Brzechczyn) More to come

Space [Japanese concepts of] see kankyo, basho, ma.

Space [Russian concepts of] see mestorazvitie, obshestvennost.

Subcultural Subcultural practices, values, and perceptions are defined with regard to what is considered to be mainstream culture. A subcultural group is very often thought to be below, borderline, abnormal, or eccentric by the dominant culture (by Gerald Cipriani). 

Svoboda, свобода (Russian). Literally: "Freedom." See volya.

Svoevolie, своеволие (Russian). Literally: “showing or imposing one’s own will”, “obstinacy” (by Andrei  Zavaliy). More

 

T

Thermogonon (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine) (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

Tian-ren-he-yi 天人合一 (Chinese). Unity of heaven and the human (by Bo Mou). More

Todorov, Tzvetan [and Intercultural Philosophy] (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

Todorov, Tzvetan: On Human Diversity: Nationalism, Racism, and Exotism in French Thought (Nous et les autres, La reflexion française sur la diversité humaine, 1989) (by Gerald Cipriani) More to come

Transcultural  A term used to denote practices, values, and perceptions that go across or beyond established cultural boundaries and identities. A transcultural vision may seek common grounds between cultural particularities and differences.Useful Link: Institute for Transtextual and Transcultural Studies (by Gerald Cipriani).

Transculturalism is more than the arbitrary combination of several cultures but it can be defined as "seeing oneself in the other" (by Thorsten Botz-Bornstein). More

Trairism, Romanian variant of existentialism. (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

 

V

Vocabulaire européen des philosophies : Dictionnaire des intraduisibles (editor: Barbara Cassin) (by TBB) More

Volya, воля (Russian). Literally: "freedom," "liberty" (by Andrei Zavaliy). More

Voobrazhaemaja logikaВоображаемая логика (Russian) see Imaginary Logic.

Vseyedinstvo see All-Unity

 

W

Wen 文 (Chinese) is an untranslatable term meaning “pattern,” “structure,” “writing,” and “literature” (by TBB). More

World Philosophy. Many of us know the names of the classics of some faraway countries and some of us have even read them (by TBB). More

Wu 無, (Chinese) see Nothingness.

Wu-wei 無為. (Chinese) Non-action. A seemingly paradoxical slogan in Lao Zi’s Dao-De-Jing the literal sense of which is non-action (by Bo Mou). More

 

Y

Yanev, Yanko, Bulgarian philosopher [1900-1944] (by Keith Hitchins). More to come

Ying-xi 影戏 (Chinese). Central concept in Chinese film studies through which the Chinese understand film (by TBB). More 

Yin-yang 陰陽 (Chinese). In its broad sense, the term ‘yin-yang’ means the unity of two mutually-opposed but correlative and complementary forces existing within anything in the universe (by Bo Mou). More

Yli (Modern Greek, post-Byzantine), (by Byron Kaldis & George Vlahakis). More to come

You 有 versus wu 無, (Chinese). Being versus non-being (by Bo Mou). More

Yu 有 (Japanese), Being (by Jacynthe Tremblay). More to come

 

Z

Zapadnichestvo, западничество (Russian) 'westerners', 19th century distinctions in Russian culture (by Andrei Zavaliy). More